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Archive for the ‘Weight Control and Resistant Starch’ Category


By Hope Warshaw, RDE, CDE

The singular term “dietary fiber” gives the notion of a single nutrient. That impression is further reinforced by the listing of “Dietary Fiber” on the Nutrition Facts. The plural, “dietary fibers,” however, more accurately describes the collection of individual fibers we eat, from wheat to oats, barley, beans, bananas and more. The fibers we eat are digested and metabolized differently which contribute to their different health benefits. These health benefits divide into three categories:

  1. Bulking: Fibers which hold water and add bulk. They improve regularity. Examples: wheat flour, psyllium.
  2. Viscosity: Fibers which lower cholesterol and, if consumed in sufficient quantities, lower glucose after eating. Examples: beta-glucan from oats and barley.
  3. Fermentation: Fibers fermented slowly in the large intestine which in turn increase the beneficial bacteria. They produce short-chain fatty acids which trigger positive changes in gene expression and hormones involved in hunger, appetite, glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Example: resistant starch from high amylose corn (i.e., Hi-maize).

Less than 4% of Americans ages 4 to 501 and across all population segments meet the current dietary fiber recommendation of 21-38 g/day2. Because the evidence continues to demonstrate that fermentable fibers and a healthy microbiome within the large intestine play a large role in overall health, make sure that you’re including fermentable fibers in your recommendations for dietary fiberS.   

In this newsletter, learn more about Dr. Mike Keenan’s exciting research on the health benefits of Hi-maize resistant starch and find out some favorite ways people are bringing resistant starch to the table. 

Here’s to your health!
Hope Warshaw, RD, CDE 

 

References: 

  1. Marriott BP, Olsho L, Hadden L, Connor P. Intake of added sugars and selected nutrients in the United States, national Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006. Cr Rev Food Scie Nutr. 2010;50:228-258.

 

U.S Department of Agriculture; Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 [cited 2012 June 6].

MANINIS Gluten Free Miracolo Pane Classic Peasant Bread Mix is made with resistant starch.

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“Numerous studies document the impact of nutrient malabsorption caused from
Celiac Disease in both children and adults. Calcium, vitamin D, magnesium, and fiber,
especially soluble fiber, are also limited in the gluten free diet.”

 

Cynthia Kupper, Gluten Intolerance Group

Resistant starch – particularly RS2 type resistant starch derived from corn can act as a replacement for wheat products in foods that are required to be gluten-free.

Gluten Intolerance

Celiac Disease is a condition in which there is a chronic reaction to certain protein chains, commonly referred to as glutens, found in some cereal grains. This reaction causes destruction of the villi in the small intestine, with resulting malabsorption of nutrients. Symptoms range from short-term gastrointestinal distress after gluten exposure to chronic nutritional deficiencies. Some individuals display no symptoms despite the presence of disease-specific antibodies. Estimates of celiac disease prevalence range from 0.3 to 2% of the general population. Detailed peer-reviewed information on this disease can be found on the Celiac and Gluten-Free Diet Support Page,http://www.celiac.com/.

The specific proteins responsible for reactions in celiac patients are present in wheat gluten, the elastic protein that is left behind after wheat starch is washed away from wheat flour dough. Similar proteins appear to be present in rye, barley and oats. Corn also contains proteins known as “glutens” but these are chemically distinct from the wheat and wheat-related glutens and do not contain the proteins associated with the celiac reactions. Therefore, corn consumption is completely safe for individuals with celiac disease. In fact, the American Dietetic Association specifically recommends corn products for individuals with celiac disease as an essential component of a gluten-free diet.

The strongest risk factor for development of celiac disease appears to be genetic. There is no evidence that exposure to corn or corn products is associated with the pathogenesis of this condition.

The Stats1

It has been estimated than more than 2 million people in the United States have celiac disease – or approximately 1 in 140 individuals.

The role of resistant starch

 

Eating natural resistant starch is important for colon health.  Recent scientific studies suggest that resistant starch’s fermentation within the colon may be important because it produces more butyrate than other fibers tested.  Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic properties and anti-inflammatory properties, which may be useful for preventing and/or treating Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease.

 

1 Source: Fasano A, et al, 2003 “Prevalence of Celiac Disease in at-risk and not-at-risk groups in the United States” Arch Intern Med 163:286-292. Farrell RJ and Kelly CP 2002 “Celiac sprue [review]” N Eng J Med 346:180-188.

 

Dietary fiber is the part of plant foods that resists digestion. Folk medicine tells us that “roughage” is important, but most of us are still confused about why something that isn’t even digested is so critical to human health. This FAQ explains the types of fiber, its benefits and what to eat to get enough fiber. Feel free to share it with your patients and your loved ones.

Q What’s the big deal about fiber? Why do we need it?

A Fiber promotes healthy intestinal function, influences weight control and is a critical part of a balanced diet in many ways.

Q I’m not constipated; my bowels work fine. So I don’t need fiber, right?

A There’s more to intestinal and digestive-tract health than avoiding constipation. Recent studies have found that certain types of fiber –

  • · slow the absorption of glucose and reduces insulin requirements1
    • · remove bile acids from the intestines and blocks synthesis of cholesterol, lowering cholesterol levels 2
  • · reduce the likelihood of colorectal cancer3
  • · discourage overeating, by filling the stomach4

In fact, your intestines are a major component of your immune system. Adequately maintained and nourished, your intestines can help protect you against scores of pathogens and diseases. When you consume dietary fiber, you accomplish this goal. It is important to eat a variety of fibers to obtain the optimal benefits of each type.

Q I’ve heard there are different kinds of fiber. Which is better?

A It’s long been thought that there were only two kinds of fiber – soluble and insoluble. Now there is a third kind – resistant starch. All three kinds of fiber are essential to health, so we can’t say that one is “better” than another.

  • · Soluble Fiber like pectins, gums, mucillages, and some hemicellulose): These help lower blood cholesterol levels and controls blood sugar.
  • · Insoluble Fiber such as cellulose, lignan and hemicellulose. These provide bulking and helps keep us “regular.”
  • · Resistant Starch – the ‘trendiest’ form of dietary fiber – is insoluble but is fermented like soluble fiber, giving us some of the health benefits of both – plus some unique advantages of its own.

Q What should I eat to get all three kinds of fiber?

A Fiber comes only from plant foods; it isn’t found in meats, fish or dairy products.

In general, soluble fiber is found in oatmeal, barley and rye; beans, peas and lentils; fresh and dried fruits, and most vegetables.

Insoluble fiber is found in the skins and seeds of fruits and vegetables; in wheat bran; and in whole grains – including popcorn.

Resistant starch is found in whole grains, seeds, legumes, under-ripe fruit, and is especially prevalent in cooked starches that have been cooled – such as pasta salad, potato salad and sushi rice. It can also be found in packaged foods that contain selected new ingredients designed to provide resistant starch.

Many foods contain all three kinds of fiber, so your best plan is to eat the widest variety possible of fruits, vegetables and grains.

Q How much fiber should I eat every day?

A In 2002 the US government5 set the daily recommended intake (DRI) for fiber at 38g per day for men under age 50, and 30g per day for older men. For women, the DRI is 25g per day under age 50 and 21g per day over 50.

Men and women, young and old require about the same proportion of fiber in their diets; the actual fiber amounts vary only because these different groups eat different levels of calories.

Q That doesn’t sound like much. I probably get that much already.

A Probably not. The average American gets only about 13 grams (women) to 17 grams (men) of fiber per day, much less than recommended. Europeans on average eat more fiber, but still fall short of recommended levels.

Q Then what are the best ways for me to get more fiber?

A Below is a table6 that shows some common foods and their fiber content.

Food

Serving size

Total fiber

Soluble

Insoluble

All-bran cereal

1/3 cup

8.43g

.59g

7.84g

Oatmeal, regular

1 cup

4.45g

1.64g

2.81g

Shredded wheat

2/3 cup

3.16g

.31g

2.86g

Apple with skin

1 medium

2.76g

.28g

2.48g

Strawberries

1 cup

2.68g

.60g

2.09g

Prunes

1/2 cup

6.00g

3.60g

2.40g

Kidney beans

1/2 cup

6.66g

1.41g

5.25g

Broccoli, raw

1/2 cup

2.57g

.23g

2.34g

Potato, with skin

1 medium

5.05g

1.21g

3.84g

Carrots, raw

1 medium

1.80g

.14g

1.66g

Peas, green

1/2 cup

2.80g

.24g

2.56g

Bread, whole wheat

1 slice

2.59 g

.57g

2.02g

Bread, white

1 slice

.65g

.15g

.50g

Eating foods with added resistant starch is another good way to get more fiber. Resistant starch added during processing often increases the fiber in foods by up to 200%

Q You’ve convinced me. I’ll eat much more fiber, starting today.

A Take it slowly. If you increase the fiber in your diet too quickly, you may suffer from constipation and gas while your body adjusts. Ramp up gradually, over about three weeks, and make sure to drink plenty of liquids (6-8 glasses a day) to balance a higher-fiber diet.

References

1 Chandalia M et al. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342:1392-1398.

2 Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jan;69(1):30-42

3 Bingham SA et al. Dietary fiber in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC); an observational study. The Lancet, 361: 9368,May 3, 2003.

4 Liu S, Willett WC, Manson JE, et al. Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:920–7

5 National Academy of Science Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids.September 5, 2002.

6 Adapted from Marlett, JA. Content and Composition of dietary fiber in 117 frequently consumed foods. J Am Diet Assoc 92:175-186, 1992. As reprinted by theUniversity ofNebraska Cooperative Extension.

Miracolo Pane Classic Peasant Bread Mix is made with resistant starch.

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Think “food allergy” and you might conjure the worst-case scenario, like a child going into anaphylactic shock after exposure to peanuts. No doubt, a severe food allergy is scary. But it’s also relatively rare. A much more common scenario is an adult with a low-grade food allergy to say, gluten, who never pinpoints the cause of his misery. His symptoms are vague (bloating, constipation, weight gain) and his exposure is frequent (breakfast, lunch and dinner), so the connection is murky. And, over years, the hidden allergy takes a toll on the immune system. The result of an overworked immune system is everything from weight gain to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to arthritis.

That’s what happened to a patient of mine. John weighed 350 pounds and was facing diabetes. But his blood sugar problem was only the tip of the iceberg. He also had joint pain, asthma, crippling fatigue and a sleep disorder. To combat his lethargy, he craved diet soda and fast food for its high number of starchy carbs, a false source of fast energy. What he didn’t know was that he had celiac disease, a serious autoimmune disease fed by his daily indulgence in bagels and donuts. Celiac disease causes the immune system to turn on itself, attacking the healthy lining of the digestive tract. And the major trigger is gluten, a sticky protein found in many grains, including John’s daily dose of bagels and donuts. Unchecked autoimmune diseases mean the gut is in a constant state of inflammation, a breeding ground for chronic illness.

Food Sensitivities and Inflammation

John’s story is not unique. Inflammation is one of the biggest drivers of weight gain and disease in America. While celiac afflicts roughly 1 percent of Americans, as many as 30 percent may have non-celiac gluten intolerance.[1] The key difference is that in people with celiac disease, the body attacks the small intestine. But in people with non-celiac gluten intolerance, the immune system attacks the gluten. A recent article in The New England Journal of Medicine listed 55 “diseases” that can be traced back to eating gluten.[2] Either way, the gut festers out of sight. And when the lining of the gut is inflamed, the body is even more prone to food reactions, so the problem spirals out of control.

When the lining of the gut is inflamed, small fissures open between the tightly-woven cells making up the gut walls. Called leaky gut syndrome, these chinks in the gut’s armor allow bacteria and partially-digested food molecules to slip out into the bloodstream, where they are considered foreign invaders. Once it spies a potential enemy, the body doesn’t hold back. The immune system attacks full throttle. White blood cells rush to surround the offending particle and systemic inflammation ensues. I’m not talking about a sore throat or infected finger. I’m talking about a hidden, smoldering fire created by the immune system as it tries to fend off a daily onslaught of food allergies.

The problem is that most people, like John, eat foods they are allergic to several times a day. Meaning every time that food enters the body, the immune system whips itself into a frenzy. But because symptoms are delayed up to 72 hours after eating, a low-grade food allergy can be hard to spot. Without diagnosis or awareness, the damage is repeated over and over, meal after meal. Eventually, inflammation seeps throughout the body, establishing an environment ripe for weight gain and chronic disease.

Identifying and treating food allergies and food sensitivities is an important part of my practice. Six weeks after John went gluten-free on The Blood Sugar Solution, not only did he lose three notches on his belt, but his knees didn’t hurt, his asthma was gone, he wasn’t hungry and his energy was back. John’s response was not unusual. I have seen dramatic effects in weight loss, inflammatory conditions like autoimmune disease and even mood and behavioral disorders.

The problem is that most physicians, especially allergists, don’t see the value in uncovering hidden food allergies. That is unfortunate because there is a growing body of medical literature illuminating the intimate relationship between the gut, food and illness. Luckily, you don’t have to wait for your doctor to catch up with the times. Here are three ways to determine if food allergies are undermining your health.

Three Ways to Identify Food Allergies

  1. Get a blood test. Blood testing for IgG food allergens (Immuno Labsand other labs) can help you to identify hidden food allergies. While these tests do have limitations and need to be interpreted in the context of the rest of your health, they can be useful guides to what’s bothering YOU in particular. When considering blood tests for allergens, it’s always a good idea to work with a doctor or nutritionist trained in dealing with food allergies. 
  2. Go dairy- and gluten-free for six weeks. Dairy and gluten are the most common triggers of food allergies. For patients who have trouble losing weight, I often recommend a short elimination as part of the The Blood Sugar Solution. Both dairy (milk, cheese, butter and yogurt) and gluten (most often found in wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt, triticale and kamut) are linked to insulin resistance and, therefore, weight gain. Temporarily cutting them out of the diet allows the inflamed gut to heal. This one move may be the single most important thing most you can do to lose weight. 

     

  3. Avoid the top food allergens. If you don’t feel a sense of relief from nixing dairy and gluten, you may need to take the elimination diet one step further by cutting out the top food allergens: gluten, dairy, corn, eggs, soy, nuts, nightshades (tomatoes, bell peppers, potatoes and eggplant), citrus and yeast (baker’s, brewer’s yeast and fermented products like vinegar). Try this for a full six weeks. That is enough time to feel better and notice a change. When you reintroduce a top food allergen, eat it at least two to three times a day for three days to see if you notice a reaction. If you do, note the food and eliminate it for 90 days.

 

If you are overweight or if you suffer from inflammatory diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes and cancer, the potential health benefits of discovering and uprooting hidden food allergies cannot be overstated. Remember, food is your greatest ally in helping to prevent and treat illness. For more information see The Blood Sugar Solution to get a free sneak peak.

Now I’d like to hear from you…

Do you have food allergies?

Are you gluten intolerant?

Have you eliminated your food sensitivities and lost weight?

Please leave your thoughts by adding a comment below.

To your good health,

Mark Hyman, MD

References:

[1] Ludvigsson, JF, et al. 2009. “Small-intestinal histopathology and mortality risk in celiac disease,” Journal of the American Medical Association. 302 (11): 1171-8

[2] Farrell, RJ, and CP Kelly. 2002. “Celiac sprue,” New England Journal of Medicine. 346 (3): 180-88 Review

Mark Hyman, M.D. is a practicing physician, founder of The UltraWellness Center, a four-time New York Times bestselling author, and an international leader in the field of Functional Medicine. You can follow him on Twitter, connect with him on LinkedIn, watch his videos on YouTube, become a fan on Facebook, and subscribe to his newsletter.

For more by Mark Hyman, M.D., click here.

For more on diet and nutrition, click here.

For more on weight loss, click here.

 
 

 

Follow Mark Hyman, MD on Twitter: www.twitter.com/markhymanmd

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Carbs from Resistant Starch foods will make you thin, said Health magazine.

Resistance Starch helps people “eat less, burn more calories, feel more energized and less stressed, and lower cholesterol.”

The magazine’s claim is based on research from the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center for Human Nutrition.

In addition, Resistant Starch foods have backing from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO).

The research claims that Resistant Starch foods also shrink fat cells, increase muscle mass, curb cravings, and keep people feeling full for longer.

The WHO also confirmed that they promote satiation and decreases subsequent hunger.

Furthermore, of the 4,451 subjects studied by the University of Colorado, the slimmest ones ate the most carbs (from whole grains, fruits, and vegetables) and the heaviest ones ate the least carbs.

So what exactly are Resistant Starch foods?

Examples include bread, cereals, potatoes, bananas, black beans, oats, barley, bulgur, brown rice, and corn flakes.

According to About.com Guide Laura Dolson, they are digested slowly and with ‘difficulty.’   A defining characteristic is that they are not digested in the small intestine.  This is in contrast to carbs from sugars, which are rapidly digested in the small intestine and used for short-term energy or stored in the body.

Some Resistant Starch have fibrous shell. Others contain starch that the human stomach’s enzymes can’t break down.  In some regards, they are similar to fiber and provide some of the same benefits to people.

Health magazine’s editors have released a book called The Carb Lovers Diet: Eat What You Love, Get Slim For Life to capitalize on this research and provide recipes to go with it.

The key is to increase total carb intake and up the percentage of carbs from Starch Resistant foods, said Health magazine.

Another book built around Resistant Starch foods is The Skinny Carbs Diet: Eat Pasta, Potatoes, and More! Use the power of resistant starch to make your favorite foods fight fat and beat cravings by David Feder.

Please click on this link to realize the benefits of resistant starch found in Maninis Gluten Free Miracolo Pane Classic Peasant Bread Mix today!

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By D. Milton Stokes, RD

fat burning brakthrough

Potatoes get a bad rap as little more than a waist-thickening waste of calories. But amazing new research puts spuds squarely at the center of the latest weight loss buzz, along with other unfairly maligned carbs such as corn and rice. The reason: All these foods contain resistant starch, a unique kind of fiber you’ll be hearing a lot more about. In fact, experts agree that it’s one of the most exciting nutrition breakthroughs they’ve seen in years. “Resistant starch has the potential to become the next hot nutrition trend,” says Leslie Bonci, RD, author of the American Dietetic Association’s Guide to Better Digestion. Indeed, more than 160 studies have examined this little known nutrient’s remarkable health and weight loss benefits. (more…)

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By Kathleen M. Zelman, MPH, RD, LD
WebMD Expert Review

Ever since former opera singer Kumiko Mori announced she had lost 15 pounds on the “Morning Banana” diet, there has been a shortage of bananas in Japan, according to The Japan Times online. Billed as the fastest and easiest weight loss diet, the Morning Banana diet has taken Japan by storm.

The Morning Banana diet was developed by Hitoshi Watanabe, who studied preventive medicine in Tokyo, and his pharmacist wife, Sumiko. The diet has since gained popularity by word of

All this goes to show that dieting is an international obsession, not just an American one. But could weight loss really be as simple as eating bananas?

The Morning Banana Diet: What You Can Eat

The Morning Banana Diet is a super simple plan. For breakfast, you have only bananas and room-temperature water. Then, you can eat whatever you like for lunch, dinner, and snacks, as long as you don’t eat after 8 p.m. The only restrictions: No ice cream, dairy products, alcohol, or dessert after dinner, and the only beverage you may have with meals is room-temperature water. One sweet snack is allowed midafternoon.

One of the most popular aspects of the plan is the lack of emphasis on exercise. Dieters are advised to do it only if they want to, and even then, it should be done in a manner that is the least stressful.

The Morning Banana Diet: How It Works

Different versions of the Morning Banana Diet tout varying explanations of exactly how bananas work to promote weight loss. One theory suggests that certain enzymes in bananas speed up digestion and elimination, causing rapid weight loss. However, the human body already contains all the enzymes needed for digestion. It’s true that foods with fiber (and bananas have some) can go through the digestive system more quickly and may not be completely absorbed, thus saving a few calories. But the calorie savings are certainly not enough to revolutionize the weight loss industry.

Another theory centers on resistant starch, a type of fiber that is supposed to promote fullness and increase fat burning. Resistant starch is found naturally in carbohydrate foods such as green bananas, potatoes, grains, and beans — but only when you eat them cold. It resists digestion in the small intestine, where most digestion occurs, and gets passed along to the large bowel.

Studies show that the indigestible fiber may block the conversion of some carbs, but even so, bananas contain only a small amount of fiber and resistant starch. Bananas have 2-4 grams of fiber; to be considered a “good” source, a food must have 3.5-4.9 grams of fiber per serving.

Bananas, along with most fruits have long been a part of healthy diets and weight loss plans. But while they are nutritious, they do not have special weight loss properties.

 Eating whatever you like at lunch, dinner, and snacks is no recipe for weight loss. To lose weight, you need to be physically active and control calories. And to stay healthy, you should choose healthy foods.

Not eating after 8 p.m. is good advice for those who tend to mindlessly snack after dinner. But make no mistake about it: There is nothing miraculous about not eating after 8 p.m. What matters are how many calories you consume (regardless of the time of day), and how many calories you burn.

And while eating breakfast does help to get your metabolism percolating, there’s nothing magical about having a banana for your morning meal. Eating a banana and water for breakfast is easy enough and certainly a low-calorie option. Bananas range from 72-135 calories and 10-20 grams of sugar, depending on size. But even though bananas have some fiber, a pure carb breakfast usually leads to hunger within a few hours, and hunger is the downfall of dieters.

Instead, you could blend a banana with a few cubes of ice and a cup of plain, low-fat yogurt (150 calories and 12 grams protein) for a delicious, nutritious smoothie with staying power.

The Morning Banana Diet: Food for Thought

To feel full on the fewest calories, focus on eating healthy foods high in water and fiber, like beans, soups, vegetables, and fruits. Be sure to include lean protein, such as low-fat yogurt, lean meat, eggs, or nuts, to help keep hunger at bay.

The truth is that fad diets that restrict calories can result in weight loss, but it’s almost always followed by quick weight regain. And experts agree that there is no food capable of burning off fat. If there were, we would not be coping with an obesity epidemic.

It may not be sexy or exciting, but to lose weight, you need to burn more calories than you eat. Period.

 

Kathleen Zelman, MPH, RD, is director of nutrition for WebMD and the WebMD Weight Loss Clinic. Her opinions and conclusions are her own.

MANINIS GLUTEN FREE Miracolo Pane Classic Peasant Bread Mix also contains resistant starch.  Order it online today!

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Hi-maize® resistant starch can significantly raise the fiber content and improve the nutritional quality of foods.  It has the potential to improve the health value of the diet, without requiring major changes in eating habits.  It can also improve the texture of specific foods. (more…)

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